Not Mesopotamia, the “Cradle of Civilization.” This is all of humanity we’re talking about. Where we first came from. All of us. Black, white, and every shade in-between. Where was it? Africa, of course. Present-day Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. There used to be a huge lake there, and our ancestors flourished there for 70,000 years. That’s a heck of a long time.
Human beings became anatomically modern 200,000 years ago. That means we’ve looked like we look now, more or less, for 200 millennia. We’ve changed color, some of us, and we’ve gotten bigger. We’ve developed distinctive differences. But we looked really similar way back then to the way we look currently. We didn’t start to move around, though, really move around, until between 130,000 years ago and 110,000 years ago, when a changing climate allowed parts of Africa farther away from this gigantic lake (known as Lake Makgadikgadi) to become more fertile. We started wandering and we haven’t stopped since.
How do scientists know all this? It’s in our DNA. By examining human DNA and comparing the findings to those of geology and climatology, they can piece together when things happened and where, and when the “where” part changed. No mention was made in the study about all the other human species, like the Neanderthals.